November 20, 2015
by Yasar Ahmadzai


Introduction to Peacebuilding Course




Date: October 16, 2015.


By: Yasar Ahmadzai


Kabul, Afghanistan




Conflict Situation:


Land Disputes in Eastern Afghanistan.


Since the U.S. led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, the threat of violence and conflict over the land disputes has increased dramatically. Despite the conflict over the state and power, land also lead to many disputes in the country. Residential and farm lands have become a major source of conflicts in most part of Afghanistan, land grabbing by corrupt government officials and warlords is endemic throughout the country, and absentee land is often resold or occupied, without the original owner’s knowledge.


Majority of Afghans receive their incomes from working over the farm land, therefore land always kept its value as an important asset for most of the families. Northern part of Afghanistan is called as the agricultural breadbasket of Afghanistan. Because of Its rich natural resources and transportation route which is connecting country to the neighbor country Pakistan. Agriculture makes a good income for the land owners, and this attracts returning Afghan refugees from the more volatile surrounding provinces, as well as nomadic tribes for grazing grounds toward the eastern part of the country. 


A small plot of urban land has pitted between two Shinwari sub- tribes in the southern Achin district of Nangarhar province. These two sub-tribes turned against each other in a bitter land property dispute that has stretched on for years.


Conflicts over the lands become a common story in the country, and most of these disputes are caused by the illegal power that most of the local influential commanders and warlords are carrying since years.


The Sepai and Alisherkhel sub-tribes are fighting over a 15 square-kilometer strip of desert land. Although worthless as agricultural land, the influx of migrants and increasing population makes it a good ideal for construction as well. Two years ago the Sepai were armed by the Afghanistan based U.S.A forces as part of a local policing programmer to maintain stability. But unfortunately these weapons have since been used in violent clashes against the civilians and for personal interests instead. Alisherkhel complained U.S. forces and the Afghan government had taken sides in the dispute. After a realignment of coalition and government support for the Alisherkhel, and three high profile Jirgas (the session of the elites and elders) to resolve the dispute, the Sepai mounted an attack on Nangarhar Governor Gul Agha Sherzai in October. Coalition forces retaliated by bombing the Sepai which resulted in multiple casualties.


To conclude, the dispute still exists and many people have been died from both parties so far. The conflict somehow become quite for some times but seems it can happen again any time.




Conflict Analysis:


Most of land disputes are causing by the miss-use of state power, illegal armed people of local influential figures and warlords. Besides corrupted civil and judicial administrations are also another part of the story. Finally links of illegal armed people and their relations to most of high ranking government officials most leading toward such disputes and there is very strong support behind the ones occupying other lands.




Positions and Interests, Needs and Values:


November 19, 2015
by Yasar Ahmadzai


During the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, up to one million people perished and as many as 250,000 women were raped, leaving the country’s population traumatized and its infrastructure decimated. Since then, Rwanda has embarked on an ambitious justice and reconciliation process with the ultimate aim of all Rwandans once again living side by side in peace.


Justice after the genocide


In the years following the genocide, more than 120,000 people were detained and accused of bearing criminal responsibility for their participation in the killings. To deal with such an overwhelming number of perpetrators, a judicial response was pursued on three levels:


  • the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda,

  • the national court system, and

  • the Gacaca courts.

    The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

    TheInternational Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was established by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 1994. The Tribunal has a mandate to prosecute persons bearing great responsibility for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in Rwanda between 1 January and 31 December 1994.

    The first trial started in January 1997, and by December 2012, the Tribunal had completed the trial phase of its mandate. Of the 92 persons indicted for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, 49 were found guilty and convicted,, 2 cases were withdrawn, 10 were referred to national jurisdictions (2 to France, and 8 to Rwanda), 2 accused died before completion of their cases, and 14 of the accused were acquitted. Nine accused are still at large. As of March 2014, the cases against 12 accused remain on appeal.

    The ICTR is expected to conclude its work by the end of 2014. After that, the so-called Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT), set up by the Security Council in December 2010, will take over and finish the remaining tasks of the ICTR – and of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The ICTR branch of the Mechanism began to function on 1 July 2012.

    The Tribunal has issued several landmark judgments, including:


  • In the first judgment by an international court on genocide, a former mayor,Jean-Paul Akayesu, was convicted in 1998 of nine counts of genocide and crimes against humanity. The judgment was also the first to conclude that rape and sexual assault constituted acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group.

  • November 05, 2013
    by Super User

    Afghanistan Institute of Peace (AfgIP) is an independent think-tank and a leading center for a positive community change and peacebuilding efforts toward Afghans and the region. We are committed to providing an in-depth analysis of Afghanistan and global issues relating to Afghanistan peace and reconciliation process. AfgIP engages in research to understand the ongoing conflicts (such as militancy, religious extremism, radicalisation and insurgency) with the help of academic experts, scholars and thinkers whom have years of practical and academic experience on

November 05, 2013
by Super User

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November 05, 2013
by Super User

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